Doxofylline is prescribed to help manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma.

Doxofylline, Ansimar






400 mg



I. Introduction to Doxofylline

A. Overview of the Drug and Its Therapeutic Classification

Doxofylline is a type of medicine that falls under the category of bronchodilators, more specifically in the group known as xanthines. It is commonly used to address obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, characterized by narrowed airways, inflammation, and excessive mucus production.

B. Brief History and Development

In the mid-1980s Doxofylline emerged as an advancement in the field of xanthine derivatives. This development arose because researchers were looking for tolerable options that could be as effective as traditional xanthines, like Theophylline. These traditional xanthines were known for having a therapeutic range and causing unpleasant side effects.

C. Differences from Other Similar Drugs

Compared to versions, Doxofylline has a better safety record, reducing unwanted digestive and heart-related issues. Unlike drugs, Doxofylline does not have the same blocking effect on adenosine receptors, which helps improve its overall tolerability. Additionally, there is no need for monitoring blood levels, with Doxofylline making it easier for healthcare professionals to manage patients taking this medication.

II. Composition of Doxofylline

A. Active Ingredients and Their Proportion

The therapeutic benefits of Doxofylline revolve, around its component, which is Doxofylline itself. The dosage may differ depending on the product, but generally, each tablet contains 400 mg of Doxofylline.

B. Excipients and Their Roles

Doxofylline tablets contain additional ingredients called excipients. These are substances that have essential functions in the tablet production process. For instance,, magnesium stearate acts as a lubricant to ensure tablet manufacturing. Lactose monohydrate, on the hand, helps regulate the size of the tablet by working as a filler. Additionally, microcrystalline cellulose serves as a binder to maintain the integrity of the tablet.

III. How Doxofylline Works

A. Mechanism of Action in the Body

Understanding the pharmacodynamics of Doxofylline reveals its two-fold mechanism. Firstly it helps to relax the muscles in the tubes, promoting bronchodilation and making breathing easier. Additionally, it reduces the release of markers, thereby alleviating the inflammation commonly associated with conditions such as COPD and asthma.

B. Duration of Action

After taking Doxofylline by mouth, the healing properties of the medication usually start working within an hour. Its ability to open up the airways continues for 12 hours providing prolonged relief from respiratory issues.

C. Metabolism and Excretion

After entering the body, Doxofylline goes through metabolic changes in the liver producing several metabolites. The drug and its metabolites are primarily eliminated through the kidneys with most of them being excreted in urine within 24 hours after taking it.

IV. Uses of Doxofylline

A. Approved Indications

Doxofylline is an effective treatment option primarily used for managing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. These conditions, characterized by difficulty in breathing, chest tightness, and wheezing, experience notable improvement due to the bronchodilating effects of Doxofylline1.

Doxofylline is an effective bronchodilator for relieving airway obstruction in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It displays a better safety profile concerning theophylline2.

Although the cost of doxophylline was higher than that of theophylline, doxofylline reduced the overall cost related to COPD and asthma management3.

Here are some references that you can check out for more information:

  1. PubMed
  2. Biomed Central
  3. De Gruyter

B. Comparative Benefits Over Other Drugs

Doxofylline offers several advantages when compared to bronchodilators. It is known for causing milder side effects compared to drugs like Theophylline1Unlike certain xanthines, Doxofylline does not necessitate regular monitoring of serum levels2Due to its half-life when compared to specific alternatives, Doxofylline can be administered less frequently, which enhances patient compliance1.

Here are some references that you can check out for more information:

  1. PubMed
  2. European Respiratory Review

C. Patient Testimonial Summaries

Sharing the stories of patients provides evidence of how effective and safe Doxofylline is. People frequently mention improvements in their breathing and overall well-being. They also appreciate the fact that they need to take it often compared to other treatments, and they experience fewer side effects1.

Here are some references that you can check out for more information:

  1. Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine

V. Off-label Uses of Doxofylline

A. Overview of Off-label Usage

Although Doxofylline is commonly prescribed for patients with COPD and asthma, its distinctive pharmacological characteristics have attracted attention for off-label uses. Some of these applications involve the treatment of sleep apnea, pulmonary fibrosis, and bronchiectasis12.

Here are some references that you can check out for more information:

  1. DrugBank Online
  2. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
  3. European Respiratory Review

B. Evidence Supporting These Uses

Although it is still early, some findings indicate Doxofylline could be helpful in these new applications. Clinical studies have shown that patients with these conditions experienced lung function and quality of life improvements when they received Doxofylline1.

Here are some references that you can check out for more information:

  1. Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
  2. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
  3. ResearchGate

C. Controversies and Ongoing Research

Although the innovative uses of Doxofylline are fascinating, there is some disagreement surrounding them. Critics claim that the available evidence is limited and that extensive and rigorous research is required. However, this hasn’t discouraged the community from persistently exploring these off-label applications in ongoing clinical trials12.

Here are some references that you can check out for more information:

  1. Trials
  2. DrugBank Online
  3. Nature

VI. Dosage and Administration of Doxofylline

A. Standard Dosage Guidelines

The recommended dosage for Doxofylline in adults is generally 400 mg, taken once or twice daily. However, depending on the severity of the condition and how well the patient responds to treatment, the dosing schedule may be adjusted to suit needs.

B. Administration Methods and Timing

Doxofylline is readily accessible as tablets that are meant to be taken. You can take it with or without food. To achieve the outcomes, it is generally advised to stick to a regular dosing schedule.

C. Adjustments for Specific Populations

Certain groups, like individuals, patients with liver or kidney issues, or those with other severe health conditions, might need to adjust their medication doses. In these situations, a lower dosage may be recommended to minimize the chances of experiencing effects. It's always essential to seek guidance from a healthcare professional for dosing advice.

VII. Side Effects of Doxofylline

A. List of Common Side Effects

Doxofylline is typically well tolerated by the majority of individuals. However, similar to any medication, it can result in side effects for people. Some possible side effects may include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal discomfort. Headaches, dizziness, and skin-related problems such as rashes or itchiness could also occur.

B. Rare but Severe Side Effects

Although most of the side effects associated with Doxofylline are typically mild and short-lived there have been rare instances of more severe reactions reported. These can include allergic responses, which might manifest as breathing difficulties swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat, as well as intense dizziness. Additionally, cardiac arrhythmias and seizures have also been. Occur infrequently.

C. Managing and Mitigating Side Effects

To minimize the side effects of Doxofylline it is recommended that patients take the medication with food if it causes any stomach discomfort. It is essential for patients to have checkups, with their healthcare provider to detect any possible adverse reactions at an early stage. If patients experience any symptoms, they should promptly inform their healthcare provider.

VIII. Interactions with Doxofylline

A. Drug-Drug Interactions

Some medications can affect how well Doxofylline works or increase the chances of experiencing side effects. Some examples include antibiotics like ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, antiepileptic drugs such as phenytoin, and other bronchodilators like salbutamol.

B. Drug-Food Interactions

Doxofylline doesn't typically have any concerns regarding interactions with food. However, taking it along with meals is generally advised to minimize the chances of experiencing discomfort.

C. Considerations for Patients on Multiple Medications

Patients who are taking medications at the same time should be careful. It is essential to inform your healthcare provider about all your current medications, including prescription drugs, over-the-counter medicines, herbal products, and dietary supplements. This will help prevent any interactions between them.

IX. Warnings and Contraindications of Doxofylline

A. Medical Conditions Contraindicating Use

Certain medical conditions may make it inappropriate to use Doxofylline, including; Having a known allergy to Doxofylline or other xanthines, experiencing a heart attack (acute myocardial infarction) Suffering from severe arrhythmias.

B. Situations Requiring Cautious Use

Although not considered contraindications, there are specific circumstances where it is advisable to exercise caution when using Doxofylline. These situations include; Individuals with a history of peptic ulcer disease. Those who have experienced seizures in the past. Patients with severe liver or kidney disease.

C. Contraindicated Medications

Some medications should not be taken with Doxofylline as they can significantly affect how it works in the body or increase the chances of experiencing severe side effects. These medications include types of fluoroquinolone antibiotics and certain beta blockers. It is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any medicines while taking Doxofylline.

X. Careful Administration of Doxofylline

A. Administration to the Elderly

In the population, it is essential to use Doxofylline carefully and consider the bodily changes that come with aging. Individuals' liver and kidney function may be reduced, leading to slower drug clearance and requiring dosage modifications. Additionally, older adults may be more prone to experiencing side effects primarily related to the heart and nervous system close monitoring is necessary.

B. Administration to Pregnant Women and Nursing Mothers

The safety of Doxofylline for women and nursing mothers has not been definitively established. Although studies on animals have not shown any effects on fetal development, it is still recommended to exercise caution due to the limited data available from human studies. When considering whether or not to use Doxofylline in these groups, it is essential to assess the potential benefits and risks taking into account the seriousness of the mother's condition and the potential impact of the medication on the fetus or infant.

C. Administration to Children

The cautious administration of Doxofylline in patients requires careful evaluation by a healthcare professional. Dosage recommendations for this age group are not as well defined. It may differ based on the child's age, weight, and the seriousness of their condition. Parents and caregivers must administer the medication under supervision and closely observe the child for potential adverse reactions.

XI. Overdosage of Doxofylline

A. Symptoms of Overdose

Taking an amount of Doxofylline may lead to an increase in its usual side effects as well as the appearance of more severe symptoms, like intense nausea and vomiting, seizures, irregular heartbeat, and low blood pressure.

B. Steps to Take in Case of Suspected Overdose

If someone suspects an overdose, it's essential to seek medical help. The main goal is to stabilize the person manage symptoms, and prevent drug absorption. Patients or their caregivers must contact a healthcare professional or reach out to the poison control center immediately. Providing details about the quantity and timing of the dose taken is essential in assisting with treatment.

C. Prevention of Overdosage

To prevent an overdose of Doxofylline, it is essential to follow these measures; Always stick to the prescribed dosages and timings. Never take a dose to compensate for a missed one. Ensure that medications are kept out of the reach of children to avoid accidental ingestion. Regularly schedule follow-up appointments with a healthcare provider to monitor the response to the drug and make any necessary dosage adjustments.

XII. Important Precautions for Doxofylline

A. List of Precautions for Safe Use

To ensure the usage of Doxofylline, patients need to take the following steps;

1. Make sure to inform your healthcare providers about any existing medical conditions or allergies you may have.

2. Provide a list of all medications you currently take, including prescription and over-the-counter drugs, dietary supplements, and herbal products.

3. Monitoring your symptoms and promptly reporting any changes or concerns to your healthcare provider is recommended.

By following these guidelines, patients can use Doxofylline effectively while keeping their healthcare providers informed about their overall health status.

B. Special Population Considerations

Extra care should be taken when using Doxofylline in populations, including the elderly, pregnant or nursing women, and children. Adjusting the dosage or monitoring them closely for potential side effects may be necessary.

C. Lifestyle Modifications While on Medication

When taking Doxofylline, it is essential to make lifestyle changes that can improve the effectiveness of the medication and reduce any potential side effects. Quitting smoking can help lessen the strain on your lungs and enhance the drug's benefits. Additionally, sticking to a consistent sleep routine can aid in managing symptoms efficiently. Maintaining a balanced diet and engaging in regular exercise are also beneficial, as these habits can promote better overall health and potentially increase the effectiveness of the medication.

XIII. Storage of Doxofylline

A. Optimal Storage Conditions

To maintain the effectiveness and safety of Doxofylline, it is essential to store it. Keep the medication dry, away from direct sunlight and excessive moisture. The recommended temperature for storage typically ranges between 20 to 25 degrees Celsius. Make sure to refer to the instructions provided by the manufacturer for storage guidelines.

B. Information About Shelf Life

Like any other medication, Doxofylline has a specific shelf life. This means that after a period, its effectiveness cannot be guaranteed. You can usually find the expiration date on the packaging of the medication. Patients must avoid using the drug after its expiration date to ensure safety and effectiveness.

C. Safe Disposal of Expired Medication

To ensure safety and prevent consumption or misuse, it is essential to dispose of expired or unused Doxofylline responsibly. It is not recommended to flush it down toilets or drains unless expressly advised by a healthcare professional or pharmacist. Many local pharmacies and community programs provide medication take-back programs for disposal. Always consult the medication guide for instructions on proper disposal methods.

XIV. Handling Precautions for Doxofylline

A. Safety Guidelines for Handling

To ensure the safety of children and pets, it is essential to keep Doxofylline out of their reach to avoid ingestion. Also, avoid any contact with your eyes, nose, or mouth when handling the medication. Always make sure to wash your hands after taking it. If you are pregnant, you should refrain from running crushed tablets due to potential risks for the fetus that may be associated with this medication.

B. Precactions in Case of Accidental Contact

Suppose you happen to come into contact with the medicine. If it touches your skin or eyes, rinse it thoroughly with water. If you notice any irritation that persists, seek help. In case the medication is accidentally. Breathe in, get in touch with a healthcare professional or reach out to a poison control center immediately, even if there are no signs of an overdose.

C. Steps in Case of Accidental Ingestion

If you accidentally swallow Doxofylline, it's essential to seek medical help. Only induce vomiting if instructed by a healthcare professional. Ensure to provide the healthcare provider with details about how much was ingested, when it was consumed, and any symptoms you may be experiencing. This information will help guide the emergency treatment.

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