Progesterone Capsules are prescribed to women who have a lack of the hormone progesterone which causes these women have not reached menopause but have also not been having periods. Progesterone Capsules also works to prevent the overgrowth in the lining of the uterus in post menopausal women.

Generic Prometrium/ Progesterone


Endogest, Lupigest, Microgest, Gestofit, Proceive


German Remedies, Sun Pharma, Alembic, Wockhardt

Capsule, Sustained Release Tablet

100 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg, 400 mg



I. Introduction to Progesterone

A. Definition and General Overview

The endocrine system relies heavily on progesterone - an immensely potent and natural hormone - to fulfill vital bodily functions. Classified as one of the progestogens within the extensive family of steroid hormones, progesterone is widely recognized for its utmost importance in facilitating reproductive processes and regulating the complex female menstrual cycle.

Endocrine system

The male and female Endocrine system.

B. Importance of Progesterone in the Body

Beyond its role in reproductive health, progesterone is fundamental to multiple biological functions. These encompass;

  • Regulating the menstrual cycle
  • Preparing the uterus for pregnancy
  • Sustaining pregnancy
  • Impacting mood and brain function

Given its significance across these various areas. It becomes evident why maintaining an optimal balance of progesterone within one's body is imperative.


Menstrual cycle.

C. The Role of Progesterone in Medical Treatments

Progesterone holds immense significance in the medical realm owing to its diverse physiological functions. It proves beneficial in hormone replacement therapies, fertility treatments and addressing menopausal symptoms. The undeniable therapeutic effectiveness of progesterone substantiates its widespread utilization due to the body's natural responsiveness to this hormone. It becomes a valuable tool in managing various health conditions.

II. The Composition of Progesterone

A. Chemical Structure and Properties

Progesterone is a remarkable compound, dissolvable in lipids and characterized by a sophisticated chemical structure consisting of interconnected cyclic hydrocarbons. This unique steroidal structure enables progesterone to traverse cell membranes effortlessly and form strong bonds with progesterone receptors found within cells(1). As a result, progesterone exerts profound effects on numerous biological processes.

1.Progesterone - Wikipediaโ€‹.

B. Natural vs Synthetic Progesterone

The primary distinguishing factor between natural and synthetic progesterone is their unique molecular structure. Natural progesterone, also referred to as bioidentical progesterone shares an identical chemical makeup with the hormone naturally occurring in our bodies. Meanwhile synthetic variations called progestins possess slight differences on a molecular level which can impact their physiological effects and associated side effect profiles.

C. Various Forms and Preparations

Progesterone comes in different forms to meet the specific needs of individuals who require treatment. These forms include:

  • Oral tablets
  • Topical creams or gels
  • Vaginal suppositories 
  • Injectables

Selecting a particular form is typically based on the desired therapeutic outcome and the patient's preferences.

III. Understanding How Progesterone Works

A. Progesterone's Mechanism of Action

The actions of progesterone are executed through its binding with precise progesterone receptors that reside within targeted tissues such as the uterus, breasts, and brain. As this harmonious hormone receptor relationship develops, various cellular events are set into motion. These events play a significant role in influencing gene expression and subsequently impacting cell function.

B. Role in the Menstrual Cycle

During the latter half of the menstrual cycle, known as the luteal phase, progesterone plays a vital role. Its primary purpose is to prepare the uterus for a possible pregnancy by promoting the thickening of the uterine lining, also known as the endometrium. However, if pregnancy does not happen, progesterone levels decrease, which then leads to menstruation.

C. Progesterone's Influence on Pregnancy

Upon successful conception. Progesterone levels continue their ascent to safeguard and support a successful pregnancy. This crucial hormone fosters ongoing growth and vascularization within the endometrium while nourishing and sustaining early embryonic development. Moreover, it plays a vital role in preventing potentially detrimental contractions within the uterus that could disrupt embryo implantation. Inadequate quantities of this hormone pose a profound risk to pregnancy viability, solidifying its well-deserved label as "the hormone of pregnancy."

IV. Common Uses of Progesterone

A. Use in Hormone Replacement Therapy

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is commonly used to alleviate symptoms caused by hormonal imbalances. In the case of women going through menopause or who have had a hysterectomy. HRT relies on the combination of progesterone and estrogen. The goal is to restore the diminishing levels of naturally occurring hormones, resulting in improved related symptoms. Additionally, progesterone acts against estrogen's tendency to stimulate the endometrium. Thus reducing the potential risk of developing endometrial hyperplasia and cancer.(1)

1. Progesterone Function: Chart of Levels, Effects of High, Low Levels, Healthline.

B. Progesterone as a Fertility Treatment

Progesterone plays a crucial role in the process of reproduction, making it an essential element in fertility treatments. In Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) like In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) doctors often recommend progesterone supplements after embryo transfer to improve the receptivity of the uterine lining and increase the chances of successful implantation(1). Moreover, Progesterone addresses recurrent pregnancy loss and luteal phase defects. Conditions where insufficient levels of this hormone can jeopardize the maintenance of pregnancy.

1. Progesterone and IVF: So why do I need this?

C. Usage in Menstrual Cycle Disorders

Disruptions in the production of progesterone can lead to various menstrual disorders. Therefore. Synthetic progesterone or progestins are frequently used as a therapeutic method to bring back normal menstrual cycles in conditions such as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and amenorrhea. Additionally these substances play a vital role in managing heavy menstrual bleeding by reducing the amount of blood flow during menstruation.


Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).

D. Management of Menopausal Symptoms

The onset of menopause(1) brings about significant changes for women, representing the closure of their reproductive years. One notable change involves a decrease in the production of ovarian hormones like progesterone(2). This reduction frequently triggers undesirable symptoms like hot flashes, mood swings, and disruptions in sleep patterns. Nevertheless, hormone replacement therapy utilizing progesterone has emerged as a viable solution to relieve these challenging symptoms and enhance the well-being of post-menopausal women. Moreover, progesterones' neuroprotective characteristics have attracted attention due to their potential to mitigate cognitive decline linked with menopause.

1. Menopause - Symptoms & Causes - Mayo Clinic

2. What to Know About Progesterone Therapy for Menopause

V. Off-label Uses of Progesterone

A. Progesterone in Breast Cancer Prevention

Current research is investigating the potential benefits of using progesterone as a preventive measure for breast cancer. Progesterones' ability to counteract the growth-stimulating effects of estrogen is at the core of this interest. Although conclusive results have not yet been reached, initial studies show promising indications that both progesterone and synthetic progestins can help reduce the risk of breast cancer. This warrants further exploration and study in this specific field.(1)

1. Is progesterone a neutral or protective factor for breast cancer?

B. Use in the Prevention of Preterm Birth

Preterm birth is a significant cause of worldwide health issues and death among newborns. One potential approach to preventing preterm deliveries is progesterone, which is involved in maintaining pregnancy. Research has found that progesterone supplementation can reduce the risk of recurrent preterm delivery in women who have previously experienced this complication. However, it's important to note that the use of progesterone in this context is not officially approved, and the decision to use it should be based on individual factors such as the patient's risk profile and clinical condition.

C. Progesterone and Mood Disorders

Extensive research has delved into the intricate relationship between hormones and mood. In particular, progesterone's impact on neurotransmitters like GABA and its activity in the central nervous system has been identified as influential in regulating mood. Early studies have shown promising results in using progesterone and its metabolites to manage mood disorders like Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) and postpartum depression. However, it is essential to note that these uses of progesterone are considered off-label and require more extensive clinical trials to validate these initial findings.

VI. Dosage and Administration of Progesterone

A. General Guidelines for Dosage

Customizing the progesterone dosage based on individual patient requirements and clinical indications is crucial. Patients must diligently comply with the prescribed dosage regimen since incorrect usage can lead to undesirable effects. Additionally, it should be emphasized that progesterone therapy generally follows a cyclic schedule mirroring the body's natural hormone cycle – especially in scenarios involving reproductive health.

B. Administration Techniques for Different Forms

Various forms of progesterone require different methods of administration.

  • For oral tablets. It is recommended to take them with water. Whether or not food is consumed.
  • Topical creams or gels should be applied to the skin according to the instructions typically alternating between different application sites.
  • Vaginal suppositories on the other hand should be inserted as directed often utilizing an applicator provided with the medication.
  • Injectables should only be administered by a healthcare professional in a clinical setting.

C. Adjustments for Specific Patient Groups

Dosage adjustments may be required for specific patient groups, such as those with kidney or liver impairment. Due to changes in hormone metabolism. It is important to consider other coexisting conditions, concurrent medications, and individual response to treatment when customizing dosage. Therefore. It is vital to regularly monitor patients in order to ensure the effectiveness of therapy and prevent any potential negative effects.

VII. Progesterone Administration in Special Populations

A. Administration to Elderly Patients

When treating elderly patients it is important to proceed with caution due to their increased vulnerability to medication side effects, such as those of progesterone. It may be prudent to initiate treatment with a lower dose and then adjust gradually based on the patient's individual response and tolerance. This approach has the potential to offer benefits in managing any potential adverse reactions.

B. Administration to Pregnant Women and Nursing Mothers

Properly managing progesterone during pregnancy necessitates the involvement of qualified healthcare professionals. The consensus acknowledges its safety; however, a comprehensive evaluation of risks versus benefits is vital for making well-informed decisions tailored to specific circumstances, despite the presence of progesterone in breast milk. Reliable information regarding its effects on nursing infants remains limited at present. Henceforth. Cautious deliberation before usage among breastfeeding mothers becomes imperative.

C. Administration to Children

Progesterone usage in the pediatric population is exceptional and primarily restricted to particular endocrine disorders. Considering the intricacies tied to hormonal therapy for this specific age group, it becomes paramount to seek consultation from specialists who can proficiently navigate the risks and benefits involved.

VIII. Possible Side Effects of Progesterone

A. Common Side Effects: What to Expect

Although progesterone is typically well tolerated. Individuals may experience certain common side effects such as dizziness, headaches, abdominal discomfort, and mood changes. Fortunately, most of these side effects are mild in nature and tend to resolve on their own. However. It is advisable to seek consultation with a healthcare provider if any persistent or bothersome side effects arise.

B. Uncommon and Rare Side Effects

Less common but potentially more serious side effects can include severe allergic reactions, abnormal vaginal bleeding, alterations in mood and changes in vision. It is of utmost importance to regard any appearance of these symptoms as a medical emergency.

C. What to Do in Case of Adverse Reactions

If patients suspect experiencing an adverse reaction to progesterone, they must seek medical attention promptly. Healthcare providers can then guide the most appropriate next steps, which may involve adjusting the medication dosage, discontinuing therapy altogether, or providing symptomatic treatment. It is crucial to emphasize that attempting self medication or modifying therapy without consulting a healthcare professional can result in serious health complications.

IX. Interactions of Progesterone with Other Substances

A. Drug-Drug Interactions

Progesterone has the potential to interact with other medications, which may have an impact on their effectiveness or result in an increased risk of side effects. It is important to note that certain drugs, such as Ketoconazole and Rifampin. It can affect the metabolism of progesterone, Leading to changes in its plasma concentration. Additionally. The concurrent use of antiepileptics, specific antibiotics. And St. Johns Wort can also potentially alter progesterone levels. To prevent any harmful drug interactions, it is crucial to always inform your healthcare provider about all the medications you are taking, including over-the-counter drugs and supplements.

B. Interactions with Food and Beverages

Oral administrations of progesterone allow for both fasting and non-fasting consumption options. It should be emphasized that including high-fat meals when taking this medication has been associated with increased absorption rates and subsequent augmentation of its effects on the body. Maintaining awareness regarding regular alcohol intake becomes essential when considering its potential interference with proper metabolism processes resulting in heightened hormone levels within one's system during progesterone treatment periods. Following best practices would suggest avoiding or moderating alcohol intake for optimal progesterone treatment outcomes.

C. Effects of Lifestyle Factors on Progesterone Efficacy

The balance of hormones in the body. Including progesterone levels. Can be influenced by various lifestyle factors such as stress, diet, and exercise. To promote overall hormonal health and maximize the effectiveness of progesterone treatment. It is important to maintain a well-balanced diet. Engage in regular exercise. And adopt stress management practices.

X. Warnings and Contraindications for Progesterone Use

A. Contraindications: When Progesterone Should Not Be Used

Progesterone should not be used in certain situations. These include having a known allergy to progesterone or its components, a history of breast or reproductive system cancers, active thrombophlebitis or thromboembolic disorders, liver disease, and undiagnosed vaginal bleeding. It is important to share your complete medical history with your healthcare provider before starting progesterone therapy.

B. Important Precautions When Taking Progesterone

While undergoing progesterone therapy. It is essential to have regular follow-up appointments and consider periodic diagnostic tests. These measures are crucial for monitoring your body's response and identifying any adverse effects at an early stage. When discontinuing the therapy, it is always advisable to seek guidance from a healthcare professional to prevent sudden hormonal changes.

C. Special Considerations for Specific Health Conditions

Patients suffering from certain health conditions, including heart disease. Kidney disease, asthma, migraine, and mood disorders necessitate meticulous consideration due to the potential for worsening of their condition through progesterone use. Consequently, it is imperative that therapeutic choices involving these circumstances are thoroughly examined with regard to careful evaluation of both the risks and benefits involved.

XI. Careful Administration and Handling of Progesterone

A. Tips for Safe and Effective Use

It is important to always adhere to the guidelines provided by the administration when using progesterone. Ensure that you store progesterone in a cool, dry location that is not exposed to direct light. Never use progesterone beyond its expiration date. Additionally. It is crucial to dispose of any expired or unused progesterone properly to prevent any unintentional exposure or misuse.

B. Handling Precautions for Different Progesterone Forms

Different forms of progesterone require varying handling precautions, for example. Inspecting injectable forms for any discoloration or particles prior to usage is important. Additionally, it is crucial to avoid contact between topical and vaginal forms of progesterone and sensitive areas like the eyes. Lastly, always wash your hands before and after handling progesterone for utmost safety and cleanliness.

XII. Overdosage: Recognizing and Managing Progesterone Overdose

A. Symptoms of Overdosage

Experiencing excessive progesterone can lead to unpleasant effects such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, abdominal pain, fatigue, or tiredness. An individual might encounter irregular heart rhythms, altered consciousness, or even seizures in more severe situations. It is crucial to promptly identify these symptoms to enable timely intervention and avert any potentially severe complications.

B. Immediate Steps and Treatments

When suspected of overdosing on progesterone, it is strongly advised to promptly seek medical assistance to protect one's health and safety. The initial approach typically entails discontinuing the medication and effectively managing any symptoms. In severe instances, hospitalization might become necessary for proper treatment. Refraining from attempting self-treatment at home is crucial as this action could lead to more harm than benefit in such cases.

XIII. Storage and Stability of Progesterone

A. Ideal Storage Conditions

It is recommended to store progesterone in a cool and dry place. Ensuring it is protected from direct sunlight. The specific temperature range for storage may differ depending on the specific formulation but in general it is advisable to keep it at room temperature. To avoid any accidental ingestion, it is important to ensure that it is kept out of reach of children and pets.

B. Shelf Life and Stability Over Time

Progesterone longevity varies depending on various factors, including product variation and manufacturing origin. Consequently, purchasers must diligently assess the packaging for an expiration date when acquiring such medications. Utilizing progesterone beyond its stated expiration could lead to diminished efficacy or even hazardous consequences. Comprehending that proper storage practices substantially impact preserving progesterone stability further emphasizes their significance in this context.

XIV. Conclusion: The Vital Role of Progesterone in Health and Medicine

A. Recap of Progesterone's Uses and Precautions

To summarize, progesterone is an essential hormone that plays crucial roles in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and other aspects of human health. Its medical applications encompass hormone replacement therapy and the treatment of menstrual disorders. However. It is important to exercise caution when using progesterone due to potential side effects—interactions with other medications, contraindications, and the necessity for careful administration in specific populations.

B. The Future of Progesterone in Medicine

Progesterone's therapeutic potential is not limited to its current uses. Ongoing research suggests that it may also play a role in preventing preterm births and alleviating mood disorders. And even treating certain cancers. As scientists delve deeper into the intricate workings of hormones in our bodies, the scope of progesterone medical applications appears to be expanding. This has the potential to benefit numerous patients across the globe.

Rated: 5.0 / 5 based on 5.0 customer reviews.

Posted by Stevi on Sep 18, 2017 Verified Purchase


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Note: does not imply any medical claims from this review.

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