Valsartan is used in the treatment of high blood pressure or congestive heart failure.Valsartan is known as a angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), it works by relaxing blood vessels allowing blood to flow more easily.



Valent, Valsava

10, 50

Pinnacle, Sava medica


40 mg, 80 mg, 160 mg, 320 mg



I. Introduction

A Brief Overview of Valsartan Valsartan is a medication used to treat blood pressure and heart failure. It belongs to a class of drugs called angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). Additionally, it has been found beneficial in improving survival rates after a heart attack. Importance in Modern Medicine With the increasing burden of diseases worldwide, Valsartan has gained a significant reputation as an essential therapeutic option. It not only helps in reducing hypertension but also positively impacts overall heart health. Scope of the Article This article aims to discuss Valsartan, covering its various uses, chemical composition, mechanism of action, and potential side effects, among other aspects.

II. Uses of Valsartan

a. Treatment of Hypertension

Valsartan is a blood pressure medication that belongs to a class of drugs called angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB). It works by blocking a substance in the body that causes blood vessels to tighten, thus lowering blood pressure and improving blood flow1Valsartan is used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure, and can also help prevent death after a heart attack1Clinical studies have provided evidence that Valsartan shows similar effectiveness when compared to other classes of antihypertensive medications such as calcium channel blockers and beta blockers1However, it is known to have a favorable profile in terms of side effects1.

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1Mayo Clinic

b. Management of Heart Failure

Valsartan, a blood pressure medication belonging to the class of drugs called angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), has been found to have clinical advantages in patients with heart failure. Research has shown that Valsartan helps alleviate heart failure symptoms, significantly improving the well-being of individuals affected by this condition1It plays a crucial role in stabilizing the function of the left ventricle, thereby reducing hospitalization rates for patients with heart failure1.

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1Open Heart

c. Post-Heart Attack Therapy

The benefits of Valsartan after a heart attack are well-documented. It has been found to improve survival rates and reduce the recurrence of heart failure symptoms1Valsartan also helps with remodeling by reducing stress on the ventricles, which leads to better outcomes in the long run1.

Here are some references that provide more information about the benefits of Valsartan after a heart attack:

  1. Healthline: This article provides detailed information about the uses, dosage, side effects, and more of Valsartan.
  2. Mayo Clinic: The Mayo Clinic describes the use of Valsartan to treat heart failure and left ventricular failure after a heart attack.
  3. NHS: The NHS explains how Valsartan is different from other angiotensin receptor blockers and its approved use for patients who have had a recent heart attack.

d. Off-Label Uses

The management of kidney disease in people with diabetes has been studied extensively. It includes various aspects such as screening for early diabetic kidney disease (DKD) using annual spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio testing, diagnosis confirmation by repeated elevation in urinary albumin excretion, treatment of hyperglycemia, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and cessation of tobacco use, control of blood pressure and blood glucose levels, lifestyle changes including diet and exercise, prescription medications, and comprehensive care1.

Regarding Valsartan, it is a medication that has shown potential in preventing migraines. However, more research is needed to fully understand its effectiveness for this purpose2. Valsartan is primarily used to lower high blood pressure, treat heart failure, and reduce the risk of being hospitalized from heart failure. It has also been found to improve survival after a heart attack3.

Here are some references that provide more information about the management of kidney disease in people with diabetes and the benefits of Valsartan:

  1. American Academy of Family Physicians: This article provides detailed information about the management of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and the various aspects involved.
  2. Mayo Clinic: The Mayo Clinic describes the use of Valsartan to treat heart failure and left ventricular failure after a heart attack.
  3. NHS: The NHS explains how Valsartan is different from other angiotensin receptor blockers and its approved use for patients who have had a recent heart attack.

III. Composition and Chemical Structure

The active ingredients in Valsartan are a compound called N (1 oxopentyl) N [[2’ (1H tetrazol five yl)[1,1’ biphenyl] 4 yl]methyl] L valine. In addition to that, it also includes substances like cellulose and magnesium stearate. Valsartan falls under the angiotensin II receptor antagonists, a pharmacological classification. Its molecular formula is C24H29N5O3. It has a molecular weight of 435.52 g/mol.

IV. How it Works

a. Angiotensin II Receptor Blockade

Valsartan works at a level by blocking the binding of angiotensin II to the AT1 receptor, which stops its vasoconstrictive effect. This is important for regulating blood pressure because opposing the angiotensin II receptor, Valsartan helps maintain the balance of force in our body.

b. Impact on Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System

Valsartan works by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, leading to positive changes in the body that promote cardiovascular health. As a result, this medication effectively lowers diastolic blood pressure without causing an excessive reaction from the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

V. Dosage and Administration

For hypertension, the usual starting dose is 80mg per day. It can be increased based on how well it works for you. In cases of heart failure, the initial dose is usually 40mg, taken twice a day. After a heart attack, treatment should start as soon as you are stable, and the typical amount is 20mg taken twice daily.

b. Special Considerations

Dosage adjustments are necessary when dealing with kidney and liver problems. It is essential to adjust the dosage and monitor the patient's condition. When using this medication alongside drugs for controlling high blood pressure, it is generally recommended to make dose adjustments to prevent low blood pressure.

VI. Common Side Effects

Commonly reported headaches and dizziness are usually mild and short-lived. Fatigue and weakness may occur in the early stages of taking the medication. Gastrointestinal problems encompass symptoms such as nausea and diarrhea, which typically improve as the body adjusts to the medicine.

VII. Serious Side Effects and Warnings

a. Risk of Elevated Blood Potassium Levels

Symptoms and treatment: Hyperkalemia can cause muscle weakness and irregular heart rhythms, which requires action, including possibly stopping the medication. Monitoring recommendations: It is essential to check the potassium levels in the blood while undergoing Valsartan treatment.

b. Other Cardiovascular Risks

Blood pressure changes: It is essential to adjust the dosage to minimize the chances of sudden fluctuations in blood pressure. Risks related to heart rhythm: Although uncommon, Valsartan may potentially cause or worsen types of irregular heart rhythms.

VIII. Contraindications

Individuals with a known history of allergies to Valsartan or its components should avoid taking it. It is generally not recommended to use Valsartan with medications such as Aliskiren and potassium-sparing diuretics due to increased risks of hyperkalemia and kidney problems. If you have liver or kidney dysfunction, it is advised not to take this medication as it may adversely affect these organs.

IX. Careful Administration and Important Precautions

Monitoring the functioning of the liver and kidneys is crucial when administering Valsartan therapy to patients. It is essential to conduct biochemical tests to assess liver and kidney function. To ensure therapeutic results, it is necessary to monitor blood pressure levels consistently. This helps prevent fluctuations and allows for adjustments in the treatment plan if necessary. Due to its potential to cause birth defects, Valsartan is generally not recommended for use during pregnancy. It is important to consider options in such cases.

X. Special Populations

a. Administration to Elderly Patients

Dose modifications and careful monitoring may be necessary for older patients to minimize the potential for effects. It is essential to exercise caution in this population to avoid lowering blood pressure and electrolyte imbalances due to the natural physiological changes that occur with aging.

b. Administration to Pregnant Women and Nursing Mothers

The FDA classifies Valsartan as a Class D drug for women, which poses significant risks. It is known that taking Valsartan during pregnancy can harm the fetus. Nursing mothers should also avoid using it because it may be excreted in breast milk.

c. Administration to Children

Age-related considerations: It is generally not advisable to use this medication for children under six as data is available on its effects in this population. Guidelines for dosing: When determining the appropriate dose for children, carefully considering their weight and overall health condition is essential. Individualized dosing should be done with caution, taking these factors into account.

XI. Drug Interactions

a. Potentially Harmful Combinations

When taking medications, it is essential to monitor your blood sugar levels closely, as combining them with other medicines may cause fluctuations in glucose levels. Similarly, if you are already taking medication for high blood pressure, combining them with additional antihypertensives may lead to increased hypotensive effects, and therefore, dosage adjustments might be necessary.

b. Beneficial Combinations

Combining Valsartan with thiazide diuretics can potentially increase the effectiveness of lowering blood pressure. Lifestyle changes like reducing salt intake can also work harmoniously with Valsartan to help control blood pressure levels.

XII. Overdosage and Emergency Management

Signs and symptoms of an overdose may include experiencing high blood pressure, rapid heart rate, and possible kidney problems. It is crucial to seek medical attention in such cases. The treatment will involve stabilizing the patient's condition and providing support through interventions like intravenous intravenous fluids.

XIII. Storage and Handling Precautions

It is advisable to store valsartan at controlled room temperature, keeping it away from moisture and direct sunlight. For information regarding the medication's shelf life and proper disposal of waste, please refer to the package insert and follow local regulations accordingly.

XIV. Conclusion

Key Points Summary; Valsartan is a medication used for managing cardiovascular conditions. However, it is essential to note that caveats and contraindications are associated with its use, which require careful medical supervision. Implications for Patients and Healthcare Providers: The effectiveness of Valsartan in improving outcomes highlights its significance. Nonetheless, it is crucial to customize its administration based on each patient's clinical profile.

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