Risperidone belongs to the atypical anti-psychotics drug class which balances out the natural substances in the brain. Risperidone is administered for the treatment of certain mental disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, bipolar disorder and others.

Generic Risperdal


Risnia, Respidon, Risdone, Zisper


Torrent Pharma, Intas Pharma, Cipla, Unichem Laboratories

Tablet, Orally Disintegrating Tablet, Melt In Mouth tablet

5mg, 4 mg, 3 mg, 2 mg, 1 mg, 0.5 mg



I. Introduction to Risperidone

A. Understanding the Medication

Risperidone, also known as Risperdal in the market. Is a medication classified as an atypical antipsychotic. Its primary purpose is to help alleviate symptoms associated with various psychiatric disorders, by engaging with the brain's neurotransmitter system. Risperidone is crucial in effectively managing and controlling symptoms of severe mental conditions.

B. Medical Classifications and Characteristics

Risperidone a second-generation antipsychotic. It belongs to a class of pharmacological agents called benzisoxazoles. These agents are well respected for their effectiveness and safety in treating psychiatric disorders, ultimately improving patient adherence. Essentially. Risperidone acts by blocking specific receptors in the brain. Particularly the dopamine D2 receptors and serotonin 5 HT2A receptors.

C. Purpose and Therapeutic Indication

Utilized within various therapeutic contexts recognized by the FDA's approval system is risperidone. Its efficacy is notably observed when managing symptoms associated with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder alongside addressing irritability resulting from autistic disorders among patients. Hallucination suppression and alleviation of delusions and mood swings remarkably pave the way for individual engagement while curbing aggression within their daily lives.

II. The Composition of Risperidone

A. Active and Inactive Ingredients

Risperidone, the main active ingredient in this medication, antagonizes specific receptors in the brain. In addition to Risperidone, other ingredients such as lactose, microcrystalline cellulose, and magnesium stearate are included in the formulation. These additional compounds serve primarily as binders, fillers, and lubricants.


B. The Pharmacological Profile

Risperidone is well-studied in terms of its pharmacological profile. It is primarily metabolized by the liver enzyme CYP2D6. The peak concentration in the blood is typically reached within 1 to 2 hours after administration. The drug's half-life, a crucial measure of how long it takes for half of the drug to be removed from the body, can vary between 3 to 20 hours, depending on an individual's metabolism.

III. How Risperidone Works

A. Pharmacodynamics: Action on the Brain

Risperidone primarily works by antagonizing D2 and 5 HT2A receptors, which helps to reduce the excessive activity of dopamine and serotonin in the brain, by blocking these receptors. Risperidone effectively alleviates psychiatric symptoms and plays a vital role in restoring the chemical balance in the brain. Ultimately. This contributes significantly to symptom control and enhances the overall quality of life for patients.

B. Metabolism and Elimination

Risperidone is extensively metabolized in the liver through first-pass metabolism. Primarily by the CYP2D6 enzyme. This metabolic transformation results in the formation of 9 hydroxy risperidone, the primary active metabolite of Risperidone. Both Risperidone and its metabolite are eliminated from the body through urine and feces. It is crucial to closely monitor the drug's pharmacokinetic properties to ensure its therapeutic effectiveness and mitigate any possible adverse reactions.

IV. The Uses of Risperidone

A. Primary Indications

1. Schizophrenia Treatment

Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic widely used in schizophrenia treatment¹. It is known to inhibit dopaminergic D2 receptors and serotonergic 5-HT2A receptors in the brain¹. By exerting influence on excessively overactive dopamine circuits traversing through vital areas within the brain's intricate webwork topology, Risperidone exerts significant control over both positive signs (including hallucinations, delusions, or chaos within thought processes) and negative ones (including motivational deficiency or diminished social interactions)¹. 

Here are some references that you can use for further reading:
1. Effect of Risperidone Monotherapy on Dynamic Functional Connectivity of

2. Benefits and harms of Risperidone and Paliperidone for treatment [Risperidone ISM as a New Option in the Clinical Management of ...]

3. Risperidone ISM as a New Option in the Clinical Management


2. Bipolar Disorder Management

Risperidone is used to help alleviate symptoms such as heightened mood, excessive activity, and disorganized thoughts during the manic phase of bipolar disorder¹. It works by affecting chemical messengers in the brain (neurotransmitters) like dopamine³. It's thought that people with bipolar disorder have an imbalance of certain neurotransmitters. This drug may improve this imbalance¹³.

Here are some references that you can use for further reading:

1. Risperidone: Side Effects, Dosage, Uses, and More - Healthline

2. Benefits and harms of Risperidone and Paliperidone for treatment of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis involving individual participant data and clinical study reports

3. risperidone (Risperdal): uses, doses and side effects - NetDoctor

B. Secondary Uses

1. Autistic Disorder Symptom Management

Risperidone treats irritability, aggression, and self-injurious behavior in individuals with autistic disorders. It works by affecting chemical messengers in the brain (neurotransmitters) like serotonin and dopamine.

Here are some references that you can use for further reading:

1. Treatment of Aggression: Irritability, Self-Injury, Aggressive Behavior, and Explosive Outbursts in the Context of ASD and ID (continued) Level 3 - Antipsychotic Monotherapy. Consider risperidone or aripiprazole for severe irritability, including aggression, self-injury, and significant mood lability.

2. Risperidone (Risperdal) for Management of Autistic Disorder

3. Treatment approaches for self-injurious behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities: A systematic review

2. Treatment of Tic Disorders

Risperidone is also used to treat tic disorders, such as Tourettes' syndrome. These conditions are characterized by abrupt and rapid motor movements or vocalizations that occur repeatedly but without a specific pattern through its ability to regulate the excessive activity of dopamine. Risperidone facilitates a notable decrease in these tics. Consequently, providing relief to affected individuals.

Here are some references that you can use for further reading:

1. Treatment Strategies for Tics in Tourette Syndrome.

2. Tic disorder developing following risperidone in a child with oppositional defiant disorder.

3. Medication for TS

V. Risperidone and Its Off-label Uses

A. Off-label Use in PTSD

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), caused by witnessing or experiencing horrifying events, has been treated with Risperidone, although this usage is not officially approved. Studies have demonstrated that this medication can help reduce the main symptoms of PTSD, such as reliving trauma. I am avoiding certain situations, and they have heightened arousal. Nevertheless, additional rigorous clinical trials are needed to determine its effectiveness in treating PTSD.

Here are some references that you can use for further reading:

1. Risperidone for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

2. Use of Antipsychotics in the Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

3. Risperidone in PTSD | Psychiatric Services.

4. Adjunctive risperidone treatment for antidepressant-resistant symptoms of chronic military service-related PTSD: a randomized trial.

B. Application in ADHD Treatment

Risperidone has also been found to help manage attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Even though it is not officially approved for this use. In some instances, it can assist in reducing hyperactivity and impulsivity when other treatments have been unsuccessful. However, it is essential to proceed with caution due to the potential side effects of the medication. It is always recommended to consult a healthcare provider before considering Risperidone for treating ADHD.

Here is a reference that you can use for further reading:

1. Risperidone for ADHD: Is It Safe and Effective?

C. Role in Dementia-Related Psychosis

Risperidone has shown promise in treating psychotic symptoms linked to dementia, like hallucinations and delusions. However, it's essential to approach this off-label use with caution as the FDA has warned about a higher mortality risk in elderly dementia patients who are treated with antipsychotic drugs.

Here is a reference that you can use for further reading:

1. Risperidone for Dementia-Related Psychosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

VI. Dosage and Administration Guidelines for Risperidone

A. Standard Dosage for Different Age Groups

The dosage of Risperidone can vary depending on the patient's age and the specific condition being treated. In the case of adult patients with schizophrenia, it is generally recommended to start with a daily dosage of 2 mg, which can then be augmented gradually based on how well the patient responds to the treatment. However. For children. The initial dose is typically lower. They are often beginning at 0.5 mg per day.

B. Dose Adjustments in Special Conditions

Dosage adjustment and careful administration of Risperidone are required when special conditions like renal or hepatic impairment are present. Moreover, the prescribed dosage may be influenced by other co-morbid conditions or concurrent medications. It is imperative to have a healthcare professional guide this process to ensure the medication's effectiveness while minimizing any potential adverse effects.

VII. Risperidone Interaction with Other Substances

A. Food and Drug Interactions

Risperidone has the potential to interact with certain foods and medications which may affect its effectiveness and lead to unwanted side effects. Although food does not significantly impact its absorption it is essential to be cautious of interactions with certain drugs. Medications that affect liver enzymes, particularly those that inhibit CYP2D6 can cause an increase in Risperidone levels in the body. Additionally, antihypertensive drugs can enhance the blood pressure-lowering effects of Risperidone and require adjustments to the dose. It is also worth noting that combining Risperidone with medications that have sedative properties can intensify feelings of drowsiness and impair cognitive function.

Food and Beverage

B. Effects of Alcohol and Tobacco

It is advised to refrain from consuming alcohol alongside Risperidone as it has the potential to intensify its sedative properties. This can result in significant drowsiness and potentially dangerous impairment of cognitive and motor abilities. Furthermore, it is worth noting that the consumption of tobacco products such as smoking can also impact the metabolism of Risperidone. Potentially compromising its effectiveness and safety.

VIII. Potential Side Effects of Risperidone

A. Most Common Side Effects

Risperidone, like any other medication has the potential to cause side effects. Some of the most frequent ones include weight gain, agitation or anxiety, somnolence, dizziness, as well as nausea and vomiting.

B. Less Common but Severe Side Effects

Less frequently. There may be instances where more severe side effects occur. These can manifest as motor disturbances such as Parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia; neuroleptic malignant syndrome—an uncommon but severe condition characterized by fever and altered mental status. And muscle rigidity; orthostatic hypotension—a drop in blood pressure upon standing; and hyperprolactinemia—an increased level of prolactin in the blood. In case patients experience any of these effects, it is imperative for them to promptly seek medical attention. It is essential to remember that Risperidone must always be taken exactly as prescribed by a healthcare provider—similarly to any other medication. Engaging in self-medication or deviating from the prescribed regimen can result in harmful outcomes.

IX. Warnings and Contraindications for Risperidone

A. Contraindications: When Not to Use Risperidone

Risperidone should not be taken by those who have had an allergic reaction to the drug before. Symptoms of such an allergic reaction can include a rash, itching, difficulty breathing, and swelling of the face or tongue. Additionally, it should not be used for dementia-related psychosis as it can increase the risk of stroke and death.

B. Important Precautions for Specific Patient Populations

When using Risperidone patients affected by specific conditions must exercise caution. Notably. Individuals living with Parkinsons' disease or dementia characterized by Lewy bodies should be mindful. Furthermore patients who have experienced seizures in the past or have renal or hepatic impairments along with cardiovascular diseases ought to consult their healthcare professional prior to starting treatment with this medication. It is also important for individuals at risk of stroke, dehydration or overheating as well as those undergoing anesthesia or affected by phenylketonuria to seek medical advice beforehand.

X. Administration of Risperidone in Special Groups

A. Administration to Elderly Patients

Caution is recommended when administering Risperidone to elderly patients, especially those with dementia, due to the higher chance of experiencing cerebrovascular adverse events and mortality. It is advised to start with a lower dose and proceed with careful dosage adjustments in this group. Additionally, Close monitoring for adverse effects such as falls, incontinence, confusion, and other neurological or psychiatric alterations is strongly recommended.

B. Usage in Pregnant Women and Nursing Mothers

To ensure responsible use, Risperidone should only be employed during pregnancy if the potential gains surpass any potential risks posed to the fetus. Although animal studies indicate some potential dangers, a scarcity of reliable data gleaned from comprehensive trials conducted on pregnant women persists. Additionally, it warrants mentioning that Risperidone can also pass into human breast milk. Consequently, contemplating its significance for maternal health becomes pivotal when determining whether or not breastfeeding should be continued alongside this medication.

C. Administration in Children: Safety and Precautions

Although Risperidone is prescribed for managing specific behavioral symptoms in children and adolescents, its safety and efficacy in pediatric patients with conditions other than schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism have not yet been confirmed. Therefore. It is crucial to exercise caution when administering this medication and seeking guidance from a pediatrician. Additionally, it is essential to monitor the child for any potential side effects closely.

XI. Overdose of Risperidone: Signs, Consequences, and Interventions

A. Identifying an Overdose

An overdose of Risperidone can present itself through various symptoms such as drowsiness, sedation, tachycardia, hypotension, and extrapyramidal symptoms. More serious instances, it can result in altered consciousness, seizures, and arrhythmias. It is crucial to seek immediate medical attention if there are any signs of an overdose.

B. Management and Treatment of Overdose

Upon encountering a case of a drug overdose, it becomes crucial to swiftly discontinue its use while promptly attending to the needs of the individuals involved by offering timely support. Said support entails guaranteeing unhindered air passage, closely observing vital signs fluctuations, and without delay tending to any symptomatic manifestations arising from said overdose. Notably, it should be acknowledged that there lacks a specific antidote dedicated solely to counteracting Risperidone overdose. Consequently, available treatments predominantly revolve around effectively managing symptoms while adopting supportive measures wherever necessary. This necessitates close monitoring of patients until tangible improvement is observed.

XII. Storage and Handling Precautions for Risperidone

A. Proper Storage Conditions

To preserve the quality of risperidone. It is essential to store it in a cool and dry place at room temperature. Ideally, this temperature should be maintained between 15°C and 30°C. It is crucial to keep this medication out of the reach of children to avoid any accidental ingestion that could harm their health. Furthermore, it is crucial not to store risperidone in a bathroom or near a sink, as excessive moisture can harm its effectiveness. Similarly, leaving it in a car where it may be subjected to extreme temperatures should also be avoided.

B. Safety Measures in Handling and Disposal

When dealing with Risperidone, taking precautions to prevent direct contact with your eyes or skin is essential. Always remember to wash your hands before and after handling this medication in case of accidental contact with your skin or eyes. Make sure to thoroughly rinse them with water when it comes to the disposal of unused or expired medication. You must handle it responsibly. Ideally, you should participate in a community take-back program or follow the instructions provided by your healthcare provider or pharmacist.

XIII. Careful Administration and Monitoring of Risperidone

A. Regular Monitoring and Follow-up

Patients who are prescribed Risperidone should be conscientious about engaging in regular monitoring to ensure the effectiveness of this medication and to identify any potential adverse effects promptly. To accomplish this, it is advised that patients undergo regular blood tests, as well as average heart rate and blood pressure checks. Additionally, it is imperative to assess the patient's mental health status. To ensure accurate evaluation of progress and make any essential modifications to the treatment plan. It is recommended that patients attend scheduled follow-up appointments with their healthcare provider.

B. Making Adjustments to Dosage and Schedule

When it comes to Risperidone, individual responses, and potential side effects can necessitate adjustments in both dosage and schedule. Remember that it is essential for healthcare providers to guide such changes. Never make modifications or discontinue taking the medication without seeking professional advice. Doing so can result in withdrawal symptoms or a deterioration of the treated condition.

C. Reporting and Managing Side Effects

It is important to report any potential side effects to your healthcare provider promptly. Common side effects such as weight gain, drowsiness, or dizziness can often be managed with lifestyle adjustments or changes in dosage. However. If you experience severe or persistent side effects. It is crucial to seek immediate medical attention. Remember, maintaining open communication with your healthcare provider is essential for ensuring safe and effective treatment with Risperidone.

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