Tranexamic acid

Tranexamic acid is used in the treatment or prevention of excessive bleeding or excessive blood loss from major trauma. Tranexamic acid allows clot formation to prevent excessive bleeding


Tranexamic acid

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FDC, Emcure Pharma


500 mg


Tranexamic acid


Overview of Tranexamic Acid

Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic drug that is employed to manage bleeding in different medical situations. It works by preventing the dissolution of fibrin clots thus helping to minimize blood loss during surgeries, injuries and intense menstrual periods. Its distinct characteristics make it a valuable asset in contemporary healthcare.

Historical Background and Development

Discovered by scientists in the 1960s Tranexamic acid was originally created to address profuse bleeding. Since then, its utilization has grown across medical domains. Its proven effectiveness and safety have solidified its place in treatment strategies.

Importance in Medical Treatments

Tranexamic acid has significantly transformed medical procedures by effectively managing bleeding. Its importance is evident in trauma treatment, surgeries and the treatment of bleeding disorders. By reducing blood loss it enhances recovery and decreases the necessity, for blood transfusions.

Tranexamic Acid for skin

Tranexamic acid serum

Tranexamic acid serum

TXA is an ingredient that may offer many benefits for the skin, including the ability to fade dark spots, discolorations, and melasma. It may also be beneficial for treating acne and improving the skin barrier. The primary use of TXA is as an agent that promotes blood clotting.
Tranexamic acid melasma

TXA has clearly demonstrated the efficacy for melasma in Asian skin, even in low doses (e.g., 500 mg daily) over short periods (8-12 weeks). 

Tranexamic acid and retinol

Tranexamic acid also pairs wonderfully with retinol and many dermatologists will suggest using an OTC or Rx retinoid in the evening and a tranexamic acid serum or dark spot corrector in the morning to effectively fade discoloration.


Active Ingredients

Acids main component is tranexamic acid. It works by stopping the activation of plasminogen which helps to stop the breakdown of blood clots and supports clotting.

Inactive Ingredients and Excipients

Tranexamic acid formulations contain inactive components that help maintain the effectiveness and absorption of the drug. These additional substances may consist of magnesium stearate microcrystalline cellulose, silicon dioxide well, as other stabilizing agents and fillers.

  • Magnesium stearate
  • Microcrystalline cellulose
  • Silicon dioxide
  • Other stabilizers and fillers

Available Formulations (Tablets, Injections, etc.)

Tranexamic acid comes in forms to meet different medical requirements, such as oral tablets, injectable solutions and topical applications, for targeted bleeding.

Tranexamic acid vs Hydroquinone

In research it has been discovered that tranexamic acid is gentler on the skin compared to hydroquinone although they are similarly effective. Tranexamic acid may cause irritation than hydroquinone and carries a lower risk of causing undesired changes, in pigmentation.


Approved Medical Uses

  1. Treatment of Heavy Menstrual Bleeding:

  2. Prevention and Treatment of Bleeding in Surgery:

  3. Use in Trauma Patients:

Off-Label Uses

Treatment of Hereditary Angioedema

  1. Hereditary Angioedema:

  2. Management of Nosebleeds (Epistaxis):

  3. Use in Dental Surgery:

  4. Treatment of Bleeding Disorders (e.g., Hemophilia):

How It Works

Mechanism of Action

Tranexamic acid functions by blocking the conversion of plasminogen, into plasmin, an enzyme that breaks down fibrin. This blockage helps stabilize blood clots. Reduces the risk of excessive bleeding.

Role in Blood Clotting

Tranexamic acid helps maintain the strength of fibrin clots, supporting the body's natural blood clotting processes to promote clot formation and durability.

Comparison with Other Antifibrinolytic Agents

Tranexamic acid is frequently likened to antifibrinolytic medications such, as aminocaproic acid. Even though both medications work to prevent fibrinolysis Tranexamic acid is typically favored for its increased effectiveness. Improved safety record.

Dosage and Administration

The amount of Tranexamic acid needed depends on the specific illness being addressed. Common dosages are as follows:

  • For menstrual bleeding, take 1,000 mg by mouth three times a day.
  • In cases of bleeding, administer 10 mg per kilogram intravenously before the procedure.
  • For trauma situations, give 1 gram intravenously over a span of 10 minutes.

Administration Guidelines

You can give acid via mouth or through an IV depending on the situation. It's crucial to adhere to instructions for effectiveness and safety.

Dosage Adjustments in Special Populations

Patients with kidney problems, older individuals, and those with health issues may require changes in their medication doses. It's important to monitor these groups to ensure proper care.

Instructions for Missed Doses and Overdosage

If you forget to take a dose, try to take it soon as you remember unless it's almost time for your next dose. If you take much, seek immediate medical help and manage the symptoms with support.

How long does tranexamic acid stay in your system

After consuming a dose of acid, it typically takes approximately 48 hours for the majority of the medication to be eliminated from your system. This duration is calculated using the life of tranexamic acid as a reference point.

Side Effects

Overview of Potential Side Effects

Tranexamic acid is usually well received; however, as with any medications, it may lead to side effects. It's important to be aware of these negative impacts, for safe utilization.

Common Side Effects

Gastrointestinal Issues (Nausea, Vomiting)

Nausea and vomiting are frequently experienced as side effects related to gastrointestinal issues.


Patients who take Tranexamic acid often mention experiencing headaches well.

Muscle Pain

Muscle soreness or spasms may happen, especially when taking amounts or using it for an extended period.

Serious Side Effects

Vision Changes

Severe adverse reactions could involve issues with eyesight, necessitating medical assessment.

Blood Clots

Although Tranexamic acid can help decrease bleeding, it may actually raise the chances of blood clot formation in people.

Allergic Reactions

Rarely individuals may experience responses that present as skin rashes, itching, or, in severe cases, anaphylaxis.

Important Precautions

General Precautions

Patients must make sure to tell their doctor about all the medications they are taking and any existing health conditions before beginning treatment, with Tranexamic acid. It's important to stay on top of check ups and follow the prescribed dosages diligently.

Monitoring Requirements

Regular blood tests might be necessary to keep track of how the medication's working and catch any negative reactions early on.

Signs and Symptoms to Watch For

Patients need to be informed about the indications and warning signs of side effects like uncommon bleeding, chest discomfort, breathing difficulties, and alterations in vision. They should be advised to seek medical help if these symptoms manifest.


Absolute Contraindications

History of Thrombosis

Individuals with a history of thrombosis should avoid using acid. This medication works by slowing down the breakdown of blood clots, which could worsen clotting issues and increase the risk of serious conditions like deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism.

Hypersensitivity to Tranexamic Acid

People who have shown responses, to Tranexamic acid should steer clear of using it. Signs of allergies may involve skin rash, itching, and serious anaphylactic reactions requiring the drug to be stopped away.

Relative Contraindications

Renal Impairment

People with kidney problems need to be careful when using Tranexamic acid. Because the drug is eliminated through the kidneys having impaired kidney function can cause the drug to build up in the body raising the chances of effects. It's important to make dosage changes, for this group.

History of Seizures

Patients who have a background of seizures need to be watched when taking Tranexamic acid. The medication has been linked to a likelihood of experiencing seizure episodes, especially at elevated dosages or in individuals with a tendency towards convulsions.


Drug-Drug Interactions

Interaction with Hormonal Contraceptives

When taking Tranexamic acid it's important for women on contraceptives to talk to their healthcare provider about potential risks of blood clotting. Considering options may be advisable in such cases.

Interaction with Anticoagulants

When using Tranexamic acid and anticoagulants together, it's important to monitor them. While Tranexamic acid helps reduce bleeding, anticoagulants work in the way, so it's crucial to strike a careful balance to prevent either excessive bleeding or the formation of clots.

Drug-Food Interactions

Tranexamic acid doesn't show interactions with food. It's advisable to stick to a schedule when taking the medication whether with or, without food to ensure steady absorption and effectiveness.

Interaction with Other Medical Conditions

Health issues like disseminated coagulation (DIC) and ongoing intravascular clotting can have adverse effects when combined with Tranexamic acid. Dealing with these conditions necessitates a customized treatment strategy that takes into account the interplay, between clot development and dissolution.


Black Box Warnings

Tranexamic acid doesn't come with a box warning, but it's important for doctors to stay alert to the possibility of severe side effects, particularly those linked to blood clotting issues.

Risks Associated with Long-Term Use

Prolonged use of Tranexamic acid can result in issues like changes in vision and standing thromboembolic conditions. It's important to check and reassess the necessity of ongoing treatment.

Special Warnings for High-Risk Populations

Patients who have previously experienced issues, strokes, or blood clotting disorders face higher risks when taking Tranexamic acid. It is crucial to observe these individuals and regularly evaluate the advantages and potential drawbacks of the treatment.

Careful Administration

Administration in Patients with Renal Impairment

Patients with kidney problems need to be given Tranexamic acid with caution. Adjusting the dosage according to how severe the kidney dysfunction is can reduce the risk of the drug building up in the body and causing harm.

Adjustments for Patients with Liver Dysfunction

While most of the Tranexamic acid is eliminated through the kidneys, individuals with liver issues may need to be watched for changes in how the drug is processed and any possible adverse reactions. It's important to include liver function tests as a part of monitoring patients.

Considerations for Patients with Cardiovascular Conditions

Patients with heart conditions need care because they are more prone to blood clotting issues. It is advised to conduct heart checkups and blood clotting tests while undergoing Tranexamic acid treatment.

Administration to Special Populations

Administration to Elderly Patients

Age-Related Considerations

Elderly individuals might experience changes in how their bodies process and respond to medications so it's important to be cautious with dosages and keep an eye on their effects. The likelihood of reactions could be greater among older adults.

Dose Adjustments

Adjusting medication doses for patients should consider factors, like kidney function, other health issues and their general well being. It's practice to start with lower doses and slowly increase them over time.

Administration to Pregnant Women and Nursing Mothers

Safety During Pregnancy

Tranexamic acid falls under pregnancy category B, indicating that it is deemed safe for use during pregnancy based on animal studies. However, human data are available, so it should only be used when necessary and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Effects on Breastfeeding

Traces of acid can be found in breast milk at low levels. It is advisable for breastfeeding mothers to seek advice from their healthcare provider regarding the advantages and disadvantages of taking the medication during breastfeeding.

Administration to Children

Pediatric Dosage Guidelines

When Tranexamic acid is used in children, it's important to follow dosing instructions tailored to the child's weight and health status. Regularly monitoring both the effectiveness and potential side effects is crucial when treating this group.

Safety and Efficacy in Pediatric Use

The effectiveness and safety of Tranexamic acid in children have been proven for situations like managing bleeding during surgical procedures. Monitoring pediatric patients to adjust medication doses appropriately and ensure safe usage is important.


Symptoms of Overdosage

In the case of taking too much Tranexamic acid, one might experience symptoms like feeling sick, throwing up, sudden drops in blood pressure when standing up, and seizures. It's crucial to seek medical help to address these symptoms properly.

Immediate Management and Treatment

Treatment, for an overdose of Tranexamic acid typically involves providing symptomatic and supportive care. If the overdose occurred recently, activated charcoal might be given. Seizures should be managed with anticonvulsant medication.

Long-Term Consequences of Overdosage

Prolonged overuse may lead to lasting vision problems and a higher chance of blood clotting issues. It's crucial to stay on top of checkups and monitor things to handle any lasting issues properly.

Storage and Handling

Tranexamic acid needs to be stored in a dry place, at room temperature shielded from moisture and direct sunlight. It should be stored in a sealed container to preserve its effectiveness and stability.

Shelf Life and Stability

Acids' shelf life can differ depending on the formulation, but they usually last between two and five years. It's important to store them and check the expiration dates before using them to ensure their stability.

Handling Precautions and Safety Tips

When working with Tranexamic acid, it's crucial to observe safety measures to avoid any contamination and to guarantee dosing. Healthcare professionals must wear personal protective gear as needed and correctly dispose of unused medication.

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